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Complete Health Indicator Report of Infant Mortality Rate

Definition

Rate of death occurring under 1 year of age in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same year

Numerator

Number of resident deaths occurring under 1 year of age in a given year

Denominator

Number of live births to resident mothers in the same year

Why Is This Important?

The infant death rate is a critical measure of a population's health and a worldwide indicator of health status and social well-being.

Healthy People Objective: All infant deaths (within 1 year)

U.S. Target: 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births
State Target: 4.8 infant deaths per 1,000 live births

Other Objectives

'''Healthy New Jersey 2020 Objective MCH-1''': Reduce the rate of infant deaths per 1,000 live births to 4.8 for the total population, 1.9 among Whites, 6.0 among Blacks, 4.5 among Hispanics, and 2.2 among Asians.

How Are We Doing?

The infant mortality rate in New Jersey has been decreasing since the early 1900s. However, the rate varies widely across the state and by several maternal and infant characteristics. The rate among Blacks is three times the rate among Whites and double the rate among Hispanics. The rate is highest among the oldest and the youngest mothers and, regardless of age, unmarried mothers have rates about double those of married mothers. Infants whose mothers receive no prenatal care are more likely to die than those whose mothers receive prenatal care. Low birth weight and preterm infants are much more likely to die, however when the effect of birth weight is controlled for, singletons are more likely to die than multiple births. Two-thirds of infant deaths occur in the neonatal period (within the first 27 days of life). The leading causes of infant death are congenital anomalies and short gestation/low birth weight. The Healthy New Jersey 2020 targets for the total population and Asians had been met by 2014.

How Do We Compare With the U.S.?

The infant mortality rate among New Jersey residents is declining while that of the nation as a whole remained near the rate New Jersey experienced in the mid-1990s until beginning a downward trend starting in 2008. In 2014, the most recent year available, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported 5.8 deaths per 1,000 births nationally compared to 4.4 in New Jersey, which has one of the lowest infant mortality rates in the nation. New Jersey has the largest disparity between rates among White and Black mothers. However, this is due in large part to the relatively low rate among Whites, which is the lowest in the nation.[https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf ^1^]

What Is Being Done?

The [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/ Division of Family Health Services] in the New Jersey Department of Health administers several programs aimed at improving children's health, including reducing infant mortality. Infant deaths are reviewed by the [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/maternalchild/outcomes/mortality-reviews/ Fetal Infant Mortality Review Team] and recommendations to reduce future deaths are made to public and private sources of care including hospitals, clinics, and health care professionals throughout the state. The Department of Health has provided state funding to improve perinatal public health services and birth outcomes in communities. Efforts are continuing to increase public and provider awareness of needs for greater access to maternal preconception care, more awareness of risky preconception and post-conception behavior, and for better general maternal health care. New Jersey is a participant in the [http://www.nichq.org/project/collaborative-improvement-and-innovation-network-reduce-infant-mortality-im-coiin Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network to Reduce Infant Mortality] (CoIIN-IM). CoIIN is a multiyear national movement engaging federal, state, and local leaders; public and private agencies; professionals; and communities to employ quality improvement, innovation, and collaborative learning to reduce infant mortality and improve birth outcomes.

Available Services

The Division of Family Health Services (FHS) provides support for pregnant women and newborns through several programs, including the Supplemental Nutrition Program for [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/wic/ Women, Infants and Children] (WIC). Perinatal Mood Disorders (e.g., postpartum depression) Helpline: 1-800-328-3838 or [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/maternalchild/mentalhealth/getting-help/] FHS supports professional and public [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/maternalchild/outcomes/index.shtml Perinatal Addiction] education services, promotes perinatal screening, and has developed a network of available resources to aid pregnant, substance-using women. [http://njparentlink.nj.gov/njparentlink/ NJ Parent Link], an interdepartmental website, is New Jersey's online Early Childhood, Parenting, and Professional Resource Center offering "one-stop shopping" for State services and resources.

Health Program Information

Maternal and Child Health: [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/maternalchild/] Special Child Health and Early Intervention Services: [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/sch/] WIC: [http://www.nj.gov/health/fhs/wic/]


Related Indicators

Related Health Care System Factors Indicators:


Related Risk Factors Indicators:


Related Health Status Outcomes Indicators:




Graphical Data Views

Infant Mortality Rate by Year, New Jersey and the United States, 2000-2015 (HNJ2020)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

US/NJYearDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- ator
Record Count: 32
US20006.927,960
US20016.827,523
US20027.027,970
US20036.827,995
US20046.827,860
US20056.928,384
US20066.728,509
US20076.829,153
US20086.628,075
US20096.426,408
US20106.124,572
US20116.124,001
US20126.023,654
US20136.023,446
US20145.823,211
US20155.923,455
NJ20006.35.86.7723
NJ20016.46.06.9745
NJ20025.75.26.1651
NJ20035.75.26.1662
NJ20045.75.26.1648
NJ20055.24.85.6590
NJ20065.34.85.7604
NJ20075.14.75.5590
NJ20085.34.85.7591
NJ20095.14.75.5559
NJ20104.84.45.2513
NJ20115.04.65.4528
NJ20124.44.04.8454
NJ20134.54.15.0464
NJ20144.44.04.8455
NJ20154.84.35.2487

Data Notes

This is Healthy New Jersey 2020 (HNJ2020) Objective MCH-1. Confidence limits are not available for the U.S. data.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health
  • National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), [https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/index.htm]


Infant Mortality Rate by Mother's Race/Ethnicity, New Jersey, 2000-2015(HNJ2020)

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Race/EthnicityYearDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- ator
Record Count: 64
White20003.93.44.4245
White20014.03.64.6248
White20023.42.93.8201
White20033.53.04.0207
White20043.63.14.1206
White20053.22.83.7179
White20063.63.14.1194
White20073.12.63.6165
White20083.63.14.1183
White20093.22.73.6154
White20102.62.23.1129
White20113.12.63.6149
White20123.02.53.5142
White20132.62.13.1122
White20142.62.23.1123
White20153.02.53.5137
Black200013.211.514.8246
Black200113.411.715.0245
Black200212.210.613.9216
Black200312.010.313.6206
Black200410.89.212.4178
Black200511.710.013.3191
Black200611.610.013.2198
Black200710.99.412.5189
Black200812.711.014.4213
Black200911.610.013.2190
Black201011.49.813.1182
Black201110.89.212.4168
Black20128.77.210.1136
Black201310.68.912.2159
Black20148.77.210.2129
Black20159.78.111.3137
Hispanic20005.84.86.8127
Hispanic20016.15.17.1141
Hispanic20026.15.17.1148
Hispanic20035.24.36.0135
Hispanic20045.44.66.3146
Hispanic20054.53.75.3124
Hispanic20065.04.25.8144
Hispanic20075.44.56.2158
Hispanic20084.43.65.2126
Hispanic20094.63.85.4130
Hispanic20104.33.55.1120
Hispanic20114.43.75.2124
Hispanic20124.23.45.0116
Hispanic20134.03.34.8109
Hispanic20144.73.95.5128
Hispanic20154.63.85.4128
Asian20002.81.73.925
Asian20013.22.14.430
Asian20022.41.43.423
Asian20034.83.46.148
Asian20044.43.15.644
Asian20055.03.66.451
Asian20063.52.44.637
Asian20072.31.43.225
Asian20082.21.43.125
Asian20092.81.83.830
Asian20103.62.54.641
Asian20113.82.75.045
Asian20123.22.24.339
Asian20133.02.04.034
Asian20141.91.12.722
Asian20152.01.12.822

Data Notes

This is Healthy New Jersey 2020 (HNJ2020) Objective MCH-1. Data for White, Black, and Asian do not include Hispanics. Hispanic ethnicity includes persons of any race.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Rate by Mother's Race/Ethnicity, New Jersey, 2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Race/EthnicityDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- ator
Record Count: 6
White3.02.53.5137
Black9.78.111.3137
Hispanic4.63.85.4128
Asian2.01.12.822
New Jersey4.84.35.2487
United States5.923,455

Data Notes

Confidence limits are not available for the U.S. data.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Rate by Mother's Age and Marital Status, New Jersey, 2013-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Marital StatusAge GroupDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- atorDenom- inator
Record Count: 12
Married< 20**0.06.5737
Married20-242.81.93.73813,439
Married25-292.82.43.313146,004
Married30-342.82.43.121075,919
Married35-393.42.84.014342,001
Married40+3.82.65.1389,885
Not Married< 207.66.09.37910,327
Not Married20-246.85.97.721331,319
Not Married25-296.55.67.419529,892
Not Married30-346.05.07.112320,430
Not Married35-396.34.87.9629,786
Not Married40+8.75.112.2232,654

Data Notes

** Number of deaths is too small to calculate a reliable rate.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Rate by Plurality, New Jersey, 2000-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Plurality3-year averageDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 42
Singleton2000-20025.04.85.2
Singleton2001-20034.84.55.0
Singleton2002-20044.54.34.8
Singleton2003-20054.44.14.6
Singleton2004-20064.34.14.5
Singleton2005-20074.13.94.3
Singleton2006-20084.13.94.3
Singleton2007-20094.13.94.3
Singleton2008-20104.13.94.3
Singleton2009-20114.03.84.2
Singleton2010-20123.93.64.1
Singleton2011-20133.73.54.0
Singleton2012-20143.63.43.8
Singleton2013-20153.73.43.9
Twin2000-200220.818.423.3
Twin2001-200322.019.624.5
Twin2002-200420.418.022.7
Twin2003-200520.217.922.6
Twin2004-200619.917.722.2
Twin2005-200721.619.223.9
Twin2006-200822.620.225.0
Twin2007-200921.218.923.6
Twin2008-201019.517.321.8
Twin2009-201118.015.920.2
Twin2010-201217.014.819.1
Twin2011-201317.014.819.2
Twin2012-201416.013.918.2
Twin2013-201516.614.318.8
Triplet2000-200238.526.650.4
Triplet2001-200345.632.958.4
Triplet2002-200438.126.549.6
Triplet2003-200551.036.665.4
Triplet2004-200648.434.062.9
Triplet2005-200753.237.668.9
Triplet2006-200841.528.054.9
Triplet2007-200940.827.054.7
Triplet2008-201033.820.547.2
Triplet2009-201137.222.951.5
Triplet2010-201250.632.768.6
Triplet2011-201353.734.772.7
Triplet2012-201452.931.873.9
Triplet2013-2015**14.748.4

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Rate by Gestational Age, New Jersey, 2013-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Gestational Age (in weeks)Deaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 5
< 28344.6324.0365.1
28-3124.919.330.5
32-3314.510.718.3
34-365.04.06.0
37+1.31.21.4

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Rate by Infant's Age and Year, New Jersey, 2000-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Infant's AgeYearDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper LimitNumer- ator
Record Count: 34
Neonatal20004.33.94.7499
Neonatal20014.33.94.7498
Neonatal20024.13.74.5470
Neonatal20034.13.74.4477
Neonatal20044.03.64.4456
Neonatal20053.43.13.8388
Neonatal20063.73.44.1429
Neonatal20073.43.03.7388
Neonatal20083.43.03.7380
Neonatal20093.63.24.0395
Neonatal20103.53.13.8370
Neonatal20113.43.03.8359
Neonatal20123.22.83.5329
Neonatal20133.22.93.6333
Neonatal20143.02.73.4310
Neonatal20153.33.03.6337
Postneonatal20001.91.72.2224
Postneonatal20012.11.92.4246
Postneonatal20021.61.41.8181
Postneonatal20031.61.41.8185
Postneonatal20041.61.41.9187
Postneonatal20051.71.52.0197
Postneonatal20061.51.31.7170
Postneonatal20071.71.52.0198
Postneonatal20081.91.62.1211
Postneonatal20091.51.21.7162
Postneonatal20101.31.11.6143
Postneonatal20111.61.41.8169
Postneonatal20121.21.01.4124
Postneonatal20131.31.11.5131
Postneonatal20141.41.21.6145
Postneonatal20151.51.21.7150

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Distribution by Causes of Death, New Jersey, 2015

::chart - missing::

Cause of DeathPercent of DeathsNumer- ator
Record Count: 11
Bacterial Sepsis3.1%15
Circulatory System Diseases2.5%12
Congenital Anomalies17.9%87
Maternal Complications of This Pregnancy4.7%19
Placenta, Cord, and Membrane Complications3.3%16
Respiratory Distress3.9%19
Short Gestation/LBW16.0%78
SIDS9.0%44
Unintentional Injuries2.1%10
Other Causes37.6%183

Data Notes

All other causes of death each had fewer than 10 deaths.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Rate by Causes of Death, New Jersey, 2000-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

Leading Causes of Infant Death3-year averageDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 56
Congenital Anomalies2000-20021.11.01.2
Congenital Anomalies2001-20031.00.91.1
Congenital Anomalies2002-20040.90.81.0
Congenital Anomalies2003-20050.90.81.0
Congenital Anomalies2004-20060.90.81.0
Congenital Anomalies2005-20070.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2006-20080.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2007-20090.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2008-20100.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2009-20110.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2010-20120.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2011-20130.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2012-20140.80.70.9
Congenital Anomalies2013-20150.80.70.9
Short Gestation/LBW2000-20021.11.01.2
Short Gestation/LBW2001-20031.21.11.4
Short Gestation/LBW2002-20041.21.11.4
Short Gestation/LBW2003-20051.21.01.3
Short Gestation/LBW2004-20061.00.91.2
Short Gestation/LBW2005-20071.00.91.1
Short Gestation/LBW2006-20081.00.91.1
Short Gestation/LBW2007-20091.00.91.1
Short Gestation/LBW2008-20101.00.91.1
Short Gestation/LBW2009-20110.90.81.0
Short Gestation/LBW2010-20120.90.81.0
Short Gestation/LBW2011-20130.80.70.9
Short Gestation/LBW2012-20140.80.70.9
Short Gestation/LBW2013-20150.80.70.9
SIDS2000-20020.50.40.5
SIDS2001-20030.40.30.5
SIDS2002-20040.30.20.4
SIDS2003-20050.30.20.4
SIDS2004-20060.30.20.4
SIDS2005-20070.40.30.4
SIDS2006-20080.40.30.4
SIDS2007-20090.40.30.5
SIDS2008-20100.40.30.5
SIDS2009-20110.40.30.5
SIDS2010-20120.30.30.4
SIDS2011-20130.30.20.3
SIDS2012-20140.20.20.3
SIDS2013-20150.30.20.4
Maternal Complications2000-20020.30.20.3
Maternal Complications2001-20030.30.20.3
Maternal Complications2002-20040.30.20.4
Maternal Complications2003-20050.30.20.4
Maternal Complications2004-20060.30.30.4
Maternal Complications2005-20070.30.20.3
Maternal Complications2006-20080.30.20.4
Maternal Complications2007-20090.20.20.3
Maternal Complications2008-20100.30.20.3
Maternal Complications2009-20110.20.20.3
Maternal Complications2010-20120.20.20.3
Maternal Complications2011-20130.30.20.3
Maternal Complications2012-20140.30.20.3
Maternal Complications2013-20150.30.20.3

Data Notes

LBW = Low Birth Weight SIDS = Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health


Infant Mortality Rate by Mother's County of Residence, New Jersey, 2011-2015

::chart - missing::
confidence limits

CountyDeaths per 1,000 Live BirthsLower LimitUpper Limit
Record Count: 23
Atlantic8.47.09.8
Bergen3.32.83.9
Burlington5.24.26.1
Camden8.27.29.2
Cape May5.33.27.4
Cumberland6.85.28.4
Essex6.15.46.7
Gloucester4.73.65.8
Hudson3.63.14.1
Hunterdon**0.73.3
Mercer7.05.88.1
Middlesex3.73.24.2
Monmouth3.22.63.8
Morris3.02.33.7
Ocean2.82.33.4
Passaic4.33.65.0
Salem5.93.38.4
Somerset3.82.94.7
Sussex3.42.04.9
Union4.94.25.6
Warren5.73.67.8
New Jersey4.64.44.8
United States5.9

Data Notes

** Number of deaths too small to calculate a reliable rate. Confidence limits are not available for the U.S. data.

Data Sources

  • Birth Certificate Database, Office of Vital Statistics and Registry, New Jersey Department of Health
  • Linked Infant Death-Birth Database, Center for Health Statistics, New Jersey Department of Health

References and Community Resources

1. Mathews TJ, MacDorman MF, Thoma ME. Infant mortality statistics from the 2013 period linked birth/infant death data set. National vital statistics reports; vol 64 no 9. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. [http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf] Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network to Reduce Infant Mortality (IM CoIIN): [http://www.nichq.org/childrens-health/infant-health/coiin-to-reduce-infant-mortality] The NJSHAD [https://www26.state.nj.us/doh-shad/query/selection/infantfetal/InfFetSelection.html Infant Death Data Query] allows users to create tables, graphs, and maps of New Jersey infant deaths by maternal age, race/ethnicity, birthplace, marital status, education, parity, and substance use during pregnancy; infant age at death, sex, plurality, birthweight, gestational age, Apgar score, prenatal care, method and place of delivery, type of birth attendant, cause of death, and county or municipality of residence for 2000 to the present.

Page Content Updated On 08/03/2017, Published on 08/04/2017
The information provided above is from the Department of Health's NJSHAD web site (https://nj.gov/health/shad). The information published on this website may be reproduced without permission. Please use the following citation: " Retrieved Thu, 14 December 2017 17:42:56 from Department of Health, New Jersey State Health Assessment Data Web site: https://nj.gov/health/shad ".

Content updated: Wed, 15 Nov 2017 07:52:42 EST